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Reduction Of Area:

The percent of cross-sectional area the metal will “Neck Down” prior to breaking in tension.


A heat-resistant material, usually nonmetallic, which is used for furnace linings and such.

Refractory Alloy:

A term applied to those alloys which due to hardness or abrasiveness present relative difficulty in maintaining close dimensional tolerances.

Rockwell Hardness:

A standard method for measuring or testing the hardness of metals. The hardness is expressed as a number related to the depth of residual penetration of a steel ball or diamond cone after a minor load of 10 kilograms has been applied to hold the penetrator in position. This residual penetration is automatically registered on a dial when the major load is removed from the penetrator.

Rolled Edges:

Finished edges, the final contours of which are produced by side or edging rolls. The edge contours most commonly used are square corners, rounded corners and rounded edge.


A term applied to the operation of shaping and reducing metal in thickness by passing it between rolls which compress, shape and lengthen it following the roll pattern.

Rolling Direction:

The direction, in the plane of the sheet, perpendicular to the axes of the rolls during rolling.

Rolling Mills:

Equipment used for rolling down metal to a smaller size or to a given shape employing sets of rolls tie contours of which determine or fashion the product into numerous intermediate and final shapes.