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A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements.


An element on the periodic table that is present in nearly all ferrous alloys and has tremendous effect on the properties of the resultant metal.

Carbon Free:

Metals and alloys that have practically no carbon.

Carbon Range:

In steel specifications, the difference between the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable.

Carbon Steel:

Common or ordinary steel as contrasted with special or alloy steels, which contain other alloying metals in addition to the usual constituents of steel in their common percentages.


The addition of carbon to the surface of iron-base alloys by absorption through heating the metal at a temperature below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids, liquids or gases.

Case Hardening:

Carburizing and subsequently hardening by suitable heat treatment, all or part of the surface portions of a piece of iron-base alloy.

Cast Steel:

Any object made by pouring molten steel into molds.


A relatively hard metal, strongly resistant to oxidation and corrosion, which makes it of great value in the manufacture of stainless steel.

Chromium-Nickel Steel:

A steel in which chromium and nickel participate as alloying elements.

Clad Metal:

A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together.


A process for covering one metal with another in which the surfaces of two fairly thick slabs of metals are brought carefully into contact and are then subjected to co-rolling.


A gray magnetic metal of medium hardness with good corrosion resistance; it principally functions as an alloy in tool steel.


A flat sheet or strip metal that is coiled, usually in one continuous piece or length.

Cold Reduced Strip:

Metal strip, made from hot-rolled strip, by rolling on cold-reduction mills.

Cold Reduction:

The reduction of metal size, usually by rolling or drawing particularly thickness, while the metal is maintained at room temperature or below the recrystallization temperature of the metal.

Cold Rolled Finish:

A finish obtained by cold rolling a plain pickled sheet or strip with a lubricant, resulting in a smooth appearance.

Cold Rolling:

Rolling metal at a temperature below the softening point of the metal to create work hardening.

Cold Working:

Plastic deformation at a temperature sufficiently low to create work-hardening.


Also known as niobium, this element is used mainly in the production of austenitic chromium-nickel steels and to reduce the air-hardening characteristics in plain chromium steels.

Commercial Bronze:

A copper-zinc alloy containing 90% copper and 10% zinc; commonly used for screws, wire and hardware.

Commercial Quality Steel Sheet:

A standard quality carbon steel sheet.

Continuous Casting:

A casting technique in which the ingot is continuously solidified while it is being poured and the length is not determined by mold dimensions.


A reddish metal that is highly malleable and ductile and has high electrical and heat conductivity.


Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents.

Cross Direction:

The direction at, right angles, to the direction of rolling or drawing.