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Society of Automotive Engineers; this organization has specified common and alloy steels and copper base alloys in accordance with a numerical index system allowing approximation of the composition of the metal.


Oxidation of metal due to heat resulting in relatively heavy surface layers of oxide.


A crack on the surface of metal that has been closed but not welded; usually produced by some defect either in casting or in working.

Seam Welding:

An electric-resistance type of welding process, in which the lapped sheet is passed between electrodes of the roller type while a series of overlapping spot welds is made by the intermittent application of electric current.


A type of cutting operation in which the metal object is cut by means of a moving blade and fixed edge or by a pair of moving blades that may be either flat or curved.


A thin flat hard metal strip produced to close tolerances; used primarily for tool, die and machine alignment purposes.


An element that is present in all steels; known for high electrical resistance.

Silicon Steel:

Steel usually made with about 0.5%-5% silicon.

Slit Edges:

The edges of sheet or strip metal resulting from cutting to width by rotary slitters.


Cutting sheet or strip metal to width by rotary slitters.

Solution Heat Treatment:

A process in which an alloy is heated to a suitable temperature, is held at this temperature long enough to allow a certain constituent to enter into solid solution and is then cooled rapidly to hold the constituent in solution.


Any process of prolonged heating and slow cooling of steel which will convert the carbide content into rounded or spheroid form.

Spring Steel:

Steel, normally of the high-carbon or alloy type, used in the manufacture of springs, lending itself to appropriate heat treatment; usually made is the open hearth or electric furnace.

Spring Steel Strip:

Any of a number of strip steels produced for use in the manufacture of steel springs or where high tensile properties are requires marketed in the annealed state, hard rolled or as hardened and tempered strip.

Spring Temper:

In brass mill terminology, spring temper is eight numbers hard or 60.50% reduction.

Stabilizing Anneal:

A treatment applied to austenitic stainless steels that contain titanium or niobium. This treatment consists of heating to a temperature below that of a full anneal in order to precipitate the maximum amount of carbon at titanium carbide or niobium carbide. This eliminates precipitation at lower temperatures, which might reduce the resistance of the steel to corrosion.

Stabilizing Treatment:

A thermal treatment designed to precipitate material from solid solution, in order to improve the workability, to decrease the tendency of certain alloys to age harden at room temperature, or to obtain dimensional stability under service at slightly elevated temperatures.

Stainless Steel:

Corrosion resistant steel of a wide variety, but always containing a high percentage of chromium. These are highly resistant to corrosion attack by organic acids, weak mineral acids and atmospheric oxidation.


A term used to refer to various press forming operations in coining, embossing, blanking, and pressing.


Iron, malleable in at least one range of temperature below its melting point without special heat treatment substantially free from slag, and containing carbon more than about 0.05% and less than about 2.00%.


Deformation produced on a body by an outside force.

Strain Aging:

Aging induced by cold working.

Strain Hardening:

An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures lower than the recrystallization range.


Deforming force to which a body is subjected or the resistance which the body offers to deformation by the force.

Stress Relief:

Low temperature annealing for removing internal stresses, such as those resulting in a metal from work hardening or quenching.

Stress Relieving:

Reducing residual stresses by heating.

Stretch Forming:

A process of forming panels and cowls of large curvature by stretching sheet over a form of the desired shape.

Stretcher Leveling:

A method of making metal sheet or strip perfectly flat by stretching. Also called “patent leveling.”

Stretcher Strains:

Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals in the direction of the maximum shear stress, when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the yield point.

Strip Steel:

A flat, cold-rolled steel product under .25″ in thickness.


The arrangement of parts; in crystals, especially the shape and dimension of the unit cell, and the number, kinds and positions of the atoms within it.


A nonmetal element that is frequently found as a contaminant in steel. It is, however, added to cutting stock to increase machinability.