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Nickel alloys that containing about 20% to 60% of iron and are used for their high magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity.

Phosphor Bronze:

Copper base alloys to which phosphor has been added in the molten state for deoxidizing and strengthening purposes; known for its excellent toughness, strength, fine grain, resistance to fatigue and wear and chemical resistance.


A nonmetallic element that, in steels, increases strength and resistance to corrosion, and improves machinability.

Physical Properties:

Those properties familiarly discussed in physics, such as density or electrical conductivity.


The process of chemically removing oxides and scale from the surface of a metal by the action of water solutions of inorganic acids.

Plastic Deformation:

Permanent distortion of a material under the action of applied stresses.


The ability of a metal to be deformed extensively without rupture.


A thin coating of metal laid on another metal.

Polished Surface:

The finish obtained by buffing with rouge or similar fine abrasive, resulting in a high gloss or polish.

Powder Metallurgy:

The art of producing metal powders and of utilizing metal powders for the production of massive materials and shaped objects.

Precipitation Hardening:

A process of hardening an alloy in which a constituent precipitates from a supersaturated solid solution.

Precipitation Heat Treatment:

Any of the various aging treatments conducted at elevated temperature to improve certain of the mechanical properties through precipitation from solid solution.


A term used to describe heating applied as a preliminary to some further thermal or mechanical treatment.

Process Annealing:

In the sheet and wire industries, a process by which a ferrous alloy is heated to a temperature close to, but below, the lower limit of the transformation range and is subsequently cooled. This process is applied to soften the alloy for further cold working.

Progressive Aging:

An aging process in which the temperature of the alloy is continually increased during the aging cycle. The temperature may be increased in steps or by any other progressive method.