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Age Hardening:

The gradual changes that take place in properties of soft or low-carbon steels after the final treatment, which bring about increased hardness, elasticity and tensile strength after the steel has returned to normal temperatures.


The spontaneous change in the physical properties of some metals, which occurs on standing at atmospheric temperatures after final cold working or heat treatment.

Air Cooling:

Cooling of the heated metal, intermediate in rapidity between slow furnace cooling and quenching, in which the metal is permitted to stand in the open air.

Air Hardening Steel:

Alloy steel that may be hardened by cooling in air from a temperature above the transformation range.

AISI Steels:

Steels of the American Iron and Steel Institute.


The common name for a type of clad-wrought aluminum products with coatings of high-purity aluminum or an aluminum alloy different from the core alloy in composition. The coatings are anodic to the core so they protect exposed areas on the core electrolytically during exposure to corrosive environments.


A metal made by adding other metals and nonmetals to a basic a basic metal to secure desirable properties.

Alloy Steel:

Steel containing substantial quantities of elements other than carbon for the purpose of increased hardness, strength or chemical resistance. The most common metals used for forming alloys are nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese, tungsten, molybdenum and vanadium.


A metal that is ductile and malleable; stable against normal atmospheric corrosion, but attacked by both acids and alkalis. It is used extensively in articles requiring lightness, corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity.


A heating and cooling operation implying a relatively slow cooling; the process is used to remove stresses; to induce softness; to alter ductility; toughness; electrical, magnetic or other physical properties; to refine the crystalline structure; to remove gases; or to produce a definite microstructure.

Artificial Aging:

An aging treatment above room temperature.


Formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials, an international organization that issues standards specifications for materials, including metals and alloys.


A phase in certain steels, characterized as a solid solution, usually of carbon or iron carbide, in the gamma form of iron.

Austenitic Steel:

Steel which, due to the presence of alloying elements like manganese, nickel or chromium, shows stability of austenite at normal temperatures.